Like any other machine, the sewing machine is a marvellous invention of science. It is a sewing machine that makes our clothes fit for our body. Without this machine, our body and the wardrobe would miss out the fanciful dresses. However, the sewing machine is not an invention of a single day. Like computer and smartphones, it is always evolving with newer technologies of the age. However, a sewing machine might seem to be a piece of junk to someone who does not know why it comes with so many components. Practically, sewing machines follow a certain pattern to work. That’s what we are going to decode in this article. We are going deeper inside a sewing machine to discover the components of a sewing machine and have a look at how sewing machine works. Let’s begin:
The Core Components of a Sewing Machine
From the very name, it is crystal clear to us that a sewing machine is something that sews. It can be hand-held, mechanical or electric, and even computerized.
Before the use of sewing machines, people would use needles in their hands to sew. That would take so much time and effort to complete a small work. For example, just for a pair of shirts or curtains, it would take almost a day. The turning and moving of the fabric frequently and sewing carefully with the needle in between the fingers were tough.
The journey of sewing machine started with the held sewing machines. Hand-held sewing machines work slowly and used mostly at home now for doing delicate tasks.
The sewing machines for industrial use are generally electric. It is because there is an electric motor inside that propels the wheels the production. This motor which is the heart of the sewing machine is placed near the power cord plug.
The motor found in electric sewing machines is almost similar to the ones used for lawn mowers or vacuum cleaners.
There are three other components driven by the motor that work with one another. Two of those components made up of cranks and cams contribute to operating the feed dog. A feed dog is the teeth you see popping up and down beneath the presser foot and the needle. On the other hand, motor drives another crankshaft that makes the needle come up and down.
The last mechanism turns the hooks and shuttles and the stitches are made.
When it comes to the evolution of the machine, modern machines have progressed very much from the old models. With the invent of computerized sewing machines, the microchip and modern electric displays are being used in the sewing machines that are expensive and meant for delicate and complex tasks. The display helps the operators to set everything easily and thus saves working delay.
However, let’s have a look at all the other components of an electric sewing machine:
- Needle-thread slot.
- Housing for the motor.
- Selectors for stick types and length
- Drawer for shuttle and bobbin.
- A presser foot
- Thread tension control
- Stitch control
- Handwheel for slow and precision work.
How Sewing Machine Works?
There are many artworks to portray how a sewing machine works. However, most of the artwork and drawing might seem confusing to you. That’s why we are going to explain the sewing machine mechanism part by part for easy understanding.
Out of the three mechanisms, this mechanism is the simplest of all. A wheel and crankshaft are driven by a grey shaft and as a result, the needle goes to fall and rise repeatedly. The rotary or rounding motion of the motor is converted by the crank into the reciprocal motion (up and down) of the needle.
Shuttle and Bobbin Mechanism
Shuttle and the hook are primarily responsible for making the stitches from the thread of the needle. That’s why the rotation rate of the shuttle and hook should be faster than that of the needle. In this case, the grey shaft uses gears or pulleys to turn the shuttle in a quicker way.
The feed-dog works to move the fabric through the machine gradually. It follows a steady speed so that all the stitches become equally lengthy. With the help of two inter-connected mechanisms, the feed-dog moves both forward and upward simultaneously. A wheel moves the lever back and forth and pulls the feed dog from the right to the left. Again, another crank mechanism takes the feed-dog up and down in a steady way. And that’s how the whole mechanism works smoothly without any issue.
From the description given above, the way how a sewing machine works should be clear to you by now. However, the working process might vary for the difference in the type and the brand of sewing machines.